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Fig.1.  An Enclosed Machine Head.

-The Machine Head is used to Tune the guitar by stretching or loosening the string.

-Inside is a simple Worm & Roller gear which winds the string much slower than the input peg is turned.  This design effectively locks the string in place at the desired tension.

Fig.2. This Open Machine Head clearly shows the Worm & Roller Gear.
As you might imagine, the Pinion is locked in place by the Worm Gear.
This same mechanism is found inside the Enclosed Machine Head.

 -The enclosed Machine Head is permanently lubricated and protected inside its enclosure.
It is therefore a smoother, more accurate and durable.  It is found on most electric guitars.

-The Open machine head pictured in Fig.2 is usually used when cost is a factor although some are well made and work quite well on Classical guitars where they are appreciated for their decorative aesthetic.

-When installing a string, turn the Machine Head Counter Clockwise (when looking at the top of the peg) to tighten.
The string must be wound to the centreline of the guitar.  This reduces the angle of the string to the Nut and reduces the possibility of the string  binding on the Nut.
Have at least 3 windings and cross over the first winding to prevent the string slipping out of tune.  For more see: String Replacement.

-Note: An annoying buzz which is hard to track down may simply be a loose Machine Head washer.  (see Fig.1)
I have seen this on more than one occasion.  Try putting your finger on each washer to find the loose one then carefully
tighten it with a wrench being careful not to scratch the wood of the Headstock of damage the metal of the nut.

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